Pijar Vatikan II di Tahun Iman: 10 Ukuran Sukses Jesuit (19C)

 

paus fransiskus simpel 2

DARI sebuah situs yang saya anggap lumayan baik dan seimbang, saya menemukan jawaban yang memadai atas pertanyaan : “bagaimana kita bisa mengukur bahwa seorang Jesuit, apalagi Paus Jesuit Bergoglio ini, bisa diukur kesuksesannya dari “kacamata” atau “cara pandang” Jesuit sendiri ?

 

Situs :http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/How-successful-were-the-Jesuits.htm mengatakan begini :

 

The success or otherwise of the Jesuits, founded by Ignatius Loyola, depends on a definition of ‘success’.

 

 If the Jesuits were meant to set new high standards for the Catholic Church post-Luther, then they were very successful. If they were to spearhead a movement – the Counter-Reformation – that would lead to the end of the Protestants within Europe, then they were not successful.

However, in determining their success, the following points should be noted:

  1. The character of Loyola is very important when explaining the success of the Jesuits. He was committed, energetic, purposeful, academic but not a intellectual. Loyola was a ‘doer’ and a natural leader. One of his followers claimed that Loyola was “always in a state of self-mastery”. Loyola was an active and capable organiser.
  2. The organisation of the Jesuits was important. They were very well disciplined and they were a semi-military order. All novices had to study the Classics. Loyola’s “Constitutions” and “Spiritual Exercises” had to be read and known.
  3. The Jesuits mission was huge. “Their church was the whole world” (Lockyer) Great emphasis was put on pastoral care and many Jesuits worked in hospitals. The Jesuits traveled the whole world on their mission. By the time of Loyola’s death in 1556, Jesuits were in Africa, India, Japan and America. They made the effort to ‘sell’ themselves – to be seen doing God’s work.
  4. There was a great emphasis put on personal advancement within the Jesuits. There were 3 grades and it was a great personal challenge to upgrade yourself and a chance to be recognised by the Generals of the Jesuits.
  5. Teachers of the highest quality were sent to help Catholic princes in Germany during the 1540′s. Jesuit colleges were established throughout Europe as a base to the Counter-Reformation. Much good work was done by Peter Canisius. “He did more than any other single person to turn back the tide of Protestantism in the area where it first started flowing.” (Lockyer). By 1600, there were 1000 Jesuits working in Germany, many at great personal risk to themselves (though this was not important to them). Colleges based on the Jesuit College in Rome were established throughout western Europe. This lead to success following on from success.
  6. Loyola had never intended his followers to be teachers but he quickly recognised the importance such a role could have for Catholic success. This gave the Catholics a high intellectual standing and as all Jesuits were man of the highest quality, gave them a leading part to play in the Counter-Reformation.
  7. Jesuits were seen to be going back to the ‘old ways’ and they were untainted with the poor standards of Catholics priests circa 1517.
  8. The Jesuits attracted the support of wealthy Catholic families who sent their sons to Catholic schools. This gave the Jesuits influence and support at senior government level.
  9. “The Jesuits were learned, cultured and accomplished and able to make their impression on society.”
  10. “The vigorous and aggressive Catholic Church which developed during the Sixteenth Century was largely the product of the Jesuits.

 

Not at all, because he’s a Jesuit

 

Menurut Pastor James Martin SJ, salah satu editor majalah Jesuit America yang berbasis di New York ,  ditunjuknya seorang Jesuit menjadi Paus, memang sudah menjadi  “kecenderungan” sejarah. Penulis buku : “The Jesuit Guide to (Almost) Everything,” ini mengatakan, dalam sejarah Gereja Katolik, kalau ada masalah berat yang tak bisa diatasi Vatikan, biasanya Paus atau Kuria Vatikan akan berpaling kepada anggota Ordo untuk memimpin gereja sebagai Paus.

 

Dengan demikian, juga ada “aura” reformasi yang kemudian muncul.

 

Pendapat Pastor James ini, David Collins misalnya, dikongkritkan begini: “Since their founding, Jesuits have consistently offended people … But if there’s a barricade in the street, there’s going to be a Jesuit on both sides of that barricade.

 

Selanjutnya, professor sejarah dari Geogetown University ini mengatakan: “Jesuits work hard to cultivate spiritual depth, and pragmatism. We get a glimpse of a little bit of that in (Bergoglio’s) time as bishop. He has a vision of simplicity and connection with the poor and marginalized,” Collins said. “I hope another part of what shapes his papacy is that pragmatic, let’s-get-it-done attitude.

 

Sementara menurut Pastor Joseph Fessio SJ, pendiri penerbitan bermutu Ignatius Press, posisi Jesuit adalah: “On the one hand, Jesuits aren’t supposed to be in positions of authority, on the other hand, they’re supposed to be obedient to the church.”

 

Dalam konteks ini, dan dalam keterbukaan Jesuit pada issues aktual umat, tidak mengherankan kalau di kalangan para Jesuit sendiri, kadangkala terjadi perbedaan strategi menjalankan tugas pewartaan, pilihan pelayanan atau bahkan interpretasi pada pesan Injil di tiap-tiap wilayah. Kardinal Bergoglio sendiri misalnya, dinilai banyak kalangan sangat pro umat miskin, sangat solider pada yang kecil, sangat revolusioner dalam berpastoral. Tetapi dinilai sangat konservatif dalam posisinya yang tak bisa ditawar soal perkawinan gay, aborsi dan penggunaan alat-alat kontrasepsi.

 

Ketika menjadi Provinsial Jesuit di Argentina dan menjadi Uskup Agung Buenos Aires, ia juga tidak ‘berpihak’ kepada para imam Jesuit maupun para imam Projo yang membela teologi-teologi pembebasan. Bagi Bergoglio, teologi semacam itu cenderung tidak seimbang dan tidak utuh, karena muatan Marxismenya terlalu banyak.

 

Dalam beberapa konggres pimpinan Jesuit dunia (termasuk dalam pemilihan Jendral Jesuit), khususnya pada tahun 1970an ketika Teologi Pembebasan di Amerika Latin lagi “ngetrend”, terjadi perdebatan terbuka: misi Jesuit itu mewartakan iman atau mewujudkan ajaran sosial gereja (yang ada konsekwensinya pada tataran sosial-politik-ekonomi) ?

 

Finding God in all things

 

Marilah kita dukung dengan sepenuh hati dan kita doakan setiap saat, agar Paus Jesuit yang pertama ini, sungguh dilimpahi karunia Roh Kudus sehingga mampu memimpin (dalam bahasa majalah Forbes : menjadi manager dan leader) Gereja kita ini. Maklum, tidak ada seorang pun di dunia ini, yang diserahi kepemimpinan 1,2 milyar orang, seperti kepala Gereja Katolik kita ini.

 

Dalam bahasa manajemen juga, menurut Allen dari majalah National Catholic Reporter, tantangan Paus Fransiskus dalam menggembalakan gereja ini ada tiga :

 

·         Greater transparency, both internally and externally.

·         Greater accountability, including consequences for poor performance.

·         Greater efficiency, as opposed to the traditionally glacial pace at which business is conducted.

 

Apakah Paus Jesuit ini kira-kira akan berhasil?

 

Dalam nama Tuhan Yesus, dengan dukungan kita semua, dan…. dengan dukungan para Jesuit sedunia: pasti bisa!

 

Kalaupun ada kesulitan, para Jesuit setahu saya punya selera humor yang baik kok!

 

Romo Joseph McShane SJ, Rektor Universitas  Jesuit Fordham ini misalnya,  bergurau begini: “A humble Jesuit? An oxymoron. A Jesuit pope? An impossibility. A humble Jesuit pope? A miracle!”

 

Kalau Romo McShane bisa mentertawakan diri karena ia Jesuit, saya cukup menjadi penggembira Jesuit saja. Saya sudah cukup bangga, lahir dan besar di Paroki Jesuit. Dibaptis oleh imam Jesuit. Dididik di SMP Kanisius dan SMA Seminari milik Jesuit. Saya ditahbiskan imam oleh Uskup Jesuit. Saya punya adik Jesuit. Punya sepupu mantan imam Jesuit. Saya dianggap keluarga sendiri oleh teman-teman Jesuit. Sudah tak terhitung saya makan, tidur gratis di rumah-rumah Jesuit di Yogya, di Jakarta, di Roma: Generalat SJ Borgo Spirito, di Collegio Roberto Bellarmino, di Collegio del Gesu, di Amerika: rumah SJ di Milwaukee, Georgetown, Fordham, dll.

 

Saya punya banyak sahabat imam Jesuit yang menyenangkan dan mengagumkan. Tetapi juga punya banyak rekan Jesuit yang konyol dan menyebalkan. Dulu saya tidak mau jadi Jesuit karena tahu diri: saya ini bukan orang yang disiplin dan gampang diatur.

 

Di kelas 2 Mertoyudan dulu, meski digadang-gadang jadi Jesuit, saya masuk kesebelasan praja untuk bertanding melawan kesebelasan  Jesuit. Kami menang karena didukung sorak sorai oleh kakak angkatan yaitu Suryoto dan Kasyanto yang juga tidak menjadi Jesuit. Dalam kehebatan maupun kekurangan Jesuit, saya tetap menyayangi mereka karena senyatanya mereka pernah mendidik dan membentuk saya.

 

Semangat IHS yang dijadikan logo kepausan Paus Fransiskus dan spiritualitas Ignatian : “finding God in all things” juga saya amini.

 

Ketika menjadi misdinar di paroki Muntilan dulu, saya

pun selalu ingat semboyan Jesuit ini : “Ad maiorem Dei gloriam”.

 

Hidup Jesuit! Sugeng makarya Kanjeng Sri Paus Fransiskus SJ!

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